La nutrición de un deportista.

La alimentación de un atleta, como la de cualquier otra persona, debe estar planteada según sus propias necesidades nutricionales diarias. Sin embargo, aunque todos sabemos que al disminuir nuestra alimentación, provocamos una merma en nuestra capacidad de esfuerzo físico, no hay que pensar que una sobrealimentación sin ton ni son vaya a provocar el resultado contrario. Es por eso que el secreto siempre se encontrará en un hábito de alimentación equilibrado y saludable respecto a nuestra actividad física diaria:
– Rica en carbohidratos complejos.
– Rica en proteínas de alto valor biológico.
– Adecuada en grasas no saturadas.
– Adecuada en vitaminas, minerales, fibra y agua.
Respecto al número de calorías diarias, ésta vendrán determinadas según el nivel de actividad física de cada persona, lo mas fácil es ir graduando poco a poco las cantidades de calorías hasta que las adecues a tus objetivos: si quieres perder peso necesitarás comer menos calorías que las demandadas (dieta hipocalórica), si quieres ganar músculo necesitarás ingerir más calorías que las demandadas (dieta hipercalórica) y si quieres simplemente mantenerte pues deberás ajustar el gasto con la ingesta lo mejor posible. Sólo tienes que ir aumentando o disminuyendo la cantidad en función de lo que pretendes conseguir. También encontrarás en internet multitud de “calculadoras de calorías” que te ayudarán a orientarte. Aunque sino eres una de esas personas que cuentan cada caloría que toman, no te servirán de mucho.

 

CARBOHIDRATOS
Para conseguir un correcto aporte energético, es recomendable usar fuentes de carbohidratos complejos (hortalizas de raíz, cereales integrales, etc..), ya que éstos macronutrientes aportarán energía de manera constante y ésta puede ser rápidamente utilizada para compensar el gasto provocado por los entrenamientos. Es por eso que debemos considerar los carbohidratos complejos una de nuestras fuentes principales de alimentos, ya que en gran medida son los que delimitarán nuestro rendimiento deportivo, basándose la dieta entre un 45% y un 65% de la cantidad total de calorías ingeridas. Tan sólo inmediatamente después del entrenamiento, para aprovechar la llamada “ventana anabólica”, sería aconsejable la ingesta de carbohidratos simples (también llamados rápidos) para facilitar la reposición de las reservas de glucógeno muscular, sin que nunca lleguen a sobrepasar el 10% de la ingesta total de calorías diarias. Aunque, según mi opinión personal, no es totalmente necesario ésta ingesta de carbohidratos rápidos a menos que vayamos a entrenar de nuevo con posterioridad en el mismo día, pero sí es interesante aprovechar ésta ventana anabólica con una ingesta de proteínas de alto valor biológico.

 

PROTEÍNAS
Las proteínas de alto valor biológico, ayudarán a la regenaración de tejidos que se dañan o destruyen con nuestro entrenamiento, además aportarán los aminoácidos esenciales que se necesitan para la síntesis de nuevas proteínas, las cuales necesitamos para ganar masa muscular, y para la regulación y funcionamiento orgánico. Pero, ¿cuánta cantidad debemos ingerir? Ésto dependerá básicamente de los objetivos del deportista. Si nuestro interés es ganar masa muscular, o somos atletas con un volúmen de entrenamiento muy elevado, nuestra ingesta de proteínas deberá estar entre 1,8g/kg y 2g/kg de masa corporal magra. Por ejemplo, si pesas 70 kg (masa magra) y estás realizando un entrenamiento para hipertrofiar, necesitarás ingerir aproximadamente unos 140g de proteína al día. Mientras que si nuestro nivel de actividad es normal y no estamos interesados en hipertrofiar, con 1-1,4 g/kg estaremos en un baremo más que suficiente.

 

GRASAS
Las grasas, o lípidos, deben aportar en la dieta aproximadamente el 25% de la energía suministrada, aunque ciertamente éstos valores variarán en función de las necesidades de cada persona, lo más sencillo, respecto al cálculo de calorías, es otorgar la cantidad sobrante una vez repartidos los dos macronutrientes anteriores: carbos y proteínas. Como siempre, recomendamos que éstas grasas sean insaturadas, sobre todo, para suplir la dificultad de cumplir con los aportes de carbohidratos recomendados anteriormente, dadas las molestias digestivas que pueden ocasionar en ciertas personas. De cualquier manera, los acidos grasos son combustible fundamental para las funciones orgánicas del cuerpo, y en estado de reposo, por lo que nunca deben suprimirse de la dieta por completo.

AGUA Y VITAMINAS
Es por todos conocido que las necesidades de agua están en íntima relación con el aporte calórico de la dieta, además de con factores medioambientales. Así, por cada caloría ingerida se debería aportar 1 mililitro de agua Si, además, la situación climatológica es de calor, alta humedad y/o viento, los requerimientos de agua aumentan considerablemente, para no entrar en deshidratación, la cual disminuirá nuestro rendimiento deportivo y de recuperación, y si llega a estadíos graves, incluso puede provocar graves problemas para la salud, incluyendo la muerte en casos extremos. Cabe recordar, que cuando tenemos sed, es que ya estamos deshidratados, por eso siempre es aconsejable beber un poco más de lo apetecible, durante el entrenamiento beber pequeños sorbos de manera frecuente es la forma ideal de mantenernos hidratados. Las vitaminas y minerales tiene un gran papel a nivel metabólico, y la fibra nos ayudará a mantener un correcto tránsito intestinal, permitiendo la eliminación de productos de desecho.

En normas generales, lo ideal es calcular la cantidad de proteínas que necesitas, y acontinuación, equilibrar el consumo de carbos y grasas según te hemos aconsejado. Es primordial que se planifique adecuadamente los horarios de comida y entrenamiento. De manera que mantengamos un periodo de 3 horas entre comidas principales y entrenamiento intenso, así como un tiempo de una hora entre la finalización del entrenamiento y una comida principal, es porqué es sencillo, el ejercicio físico demanda un mayor flujo de sangre hacia los músculos, y la digestión, demanda una mayor flujo de sangre al aparato digestivo, no queremos que éstas dos demandas ocurran a la vez.
Las ingestas intermedias (meriendas o colaciones) deberían ser de frutas frescas y secas, frutos secos en pequeñas cantidades, yogurt desnatados y cereales enteros o productos elaborados a partir de ellos, nunca calorías vacías o productos azucarados, aunque ciertos atletas son partícipes de ingerir productos azucarados antes del momento del entrenamiento para provechar los picos de energía que producen, nosotros no lo recomendamos.
Así que ya tenéis las orientaciones básicas para formar un hábito de alimentación adecuado y saludable, un saludo!!

agosto 22, 2018

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